One year ago, the Guardian published its first bombshell story based on leaked top-secret documents showing that the National Security Agency was spying on American citizens.
At the time, journalist Glenn Greenwald and the Guardian never mentioned that they had a treasure trove of other NSA documents, nor that they came from one person. Then three days later, the source surprisingly unmasked himself: His name was Edward Snowden.
See also: When he wasn't programming or doing schoolwork, D'Aloisio began to fill his spare time reading about natural language processing. He'd studied languages as diverse as Latin and Mandarin, and became fascinated by concepts like grammatical frameworks, morpheme parsing and the 1960s work of the linguist Richard Montague. 'He's my favorite,' D'Aloisio enthuses. 'He theorized that natural language could be described like a syntactical programming language.'
Scientists have long investigated stem cells' potential for growing hearts, and they reached a major milestone this year when they created heart tissue than can beat on its own.
Human bodies are frail, easily damaged packages full of parts that can never fully come back once lost. Luckily, researchers worldwide are working on replacing every bit of the body to make us all cyborgs.
1. Secret court orders allow NSA to sweep up Americans' phone records
The very first story revealed that Verizon had been providing the NSA with virtually all of its customers' phone records. It soon was revealed that it wasn't just Verizon, but 雄安新区容城县启动集体土地征收签约工作 in America.
This revelation is still one of the most controversial ones. Privacy advocates have challenged the legality of the program in court, and one Judge deemed the program unconstitutional and "almost Orwellian," while another one ruled it legal.
The existence of PRISM was the second NSA bombshell, coming less than 24 hours after the first one. Initially, reports described PRISM as the NSA's program to directly access the servers of U.S tech giants like Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Apple, among others.
PRISM, we soon learned, was less less evil than first thought. In reality, the NSA doesn't have direct access to the servers, but can request user data from the companies, which are compelled by law to comply.
PRISM was perhaps as controversial as the first NSA scoop, prompting technology companies to first deny any knowledge of it, then later fight for the right to be more transparent about government data requests. The companies ended up partially winning that fight, getting the government to ease some restrictions and allow for more transparency.
3. Britain's version of the NSA taps fiber optic cables around the world
A few people took advantage of technology:
8. It’s never too late to start.
Tempora is one of the key NSA/GCHQ programs, allowing the spy agencies to collect vasts troves of data, but for some reason, it has sometimes been overlooked. After a couple of months from the Tempora revelation, a German newspaper revealed the names of the companies that collaborate with the GCHQ in the Tempora program: Verizon Business, British Telecommunications, Vodafone Cable, Global Crossing, Level 3, Viatel and Interoute.
4. NSA spies on foreign countries and world leaders
Gary Oldman on blistering form as Winston Churchill.
The German newsweekly Der Spiegel revealed that the NSA targets at least 122 world leaders.
Other stories over the past years have named specific targets like German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Brazil's President Dilma Roussef, and Mexico's former President Felipe Calderon, the French Foreign Ministry, as well as leaders at the 2010 G8 and G20 summits in Toronto.
5. XKeyscore, the program that sees everything
XKeyscore is a tool the NSA uses to search "nearly everything a user does on the Internet" through data it intercepts across the world. In leaked documents, the NSA describes it as the "widest-reaching" system to search through Internet data.
6. NSA efforts to crack encryption and undermine Internet security
Encryption makes data flowing through the Internet unreadable to hackers and spies, making the NSA's surveillance programs less useful. What's the point of tapping fiber optic cables if the data flowing through them is unreadable? That's why the NSA has a developed a 深圳就业人口规模超1127万 to circumvent widely used web encryption technologies.
The U.S. Veterans Day holiday also coincides with other World War One-era holidays around the world, including Remembrance Day in Britain and the Commonwealth nations of Australia and Canada.
Meanwhile, exports are expected to continue falling due to the combination of weak global demand and higher prices, as well as China’s decision to effectively re-peg the renminbi to the strengthening dollar.
China's innovation indicators show "consistent steady improvement", Gurry said, adding: "And there's no reason to think that that will not continue."
里尔宁援引了荷兰经济政策分析局(CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis)的最新数据，数据显示，9月至10月经季节性调整的全球贸易量下降了1.1%，他表示，去年将被证明是世界贸易自2009年以来表现最糟糕的一年。
China's National Bureau of Statistics said its property prices index for November showed that new home prices fell 3.7 per cent from a year ago, the third straight annual decline following readings of -2.6 per cent in October and -1.3 per cent in September.
Why the difference? It wasn’t because of a difference in the available information. As Koudijs and Voth point out, everybody in Dutch financial circles knew and understood the magnitude of what had happened. Nor was it because the Seppenwolde lenders had to rebuild their own finances. Within weeks of the default, the lenders knew they hadn’t lost any money.
4.Thank you so much! I just love it! – Because telling someone that their gift sucked would make me look like an insensitive jerk。
7. NSA elite hacking team techniques revealed
The NSA has at its disposal an elite hacker team codenamed "Tailored Access Operations" (TAO) that hacks into computers worldwide, infects them with malware and does the dirty job when other surveillance tactics fail.
Der Spiegel, which detailed TAO's secrets, labelled it as "a squad of plumbers that can be called in when normal access to a target is blocked." But they can probably be best described as the NSA's black bag operations team.
The Killing of a Sacred Deer
Although Chinese domestic suppliers have expanded their market share to 32.7% in 2016, the trend was reversed in 2017, as their share shrank to 26.8%, said Qu Daokui, president of China Robot Industry Alliance.
8. NSA cracks Google and Yahoo data center links
When bulk collection or PRISM fails, the NSA had other tricks up its sleeve: It could infiltrate links connecting Yahoo and Google data centers, behind the companies' backs.
This story truly enraged the tech companies, which reacted with much more fury than before. Google and Yahoo announced plans to strengthen and encrypt those links to avoid this kind of surveillance, and a Google security employee even said on his Google+ account what many others must have thought privately: "Fuck these guys."
9. NSA collects text messages
例如，佳士得给威尼斯艺术家弗朗西斯科·丰泰巴索(Francesco Fontebasso)在18世纪中叶创作的油画《井边的丽贝卡和埃利泽》(Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well)的最低估价为12万英镑。根据Artnet的数据，在1990年的拍卖会上，这幅令人愉快的洛可可装饰风格的油画是以28.6万英镑购得的。在12月8日的拍卖会上，它仅得到一个电话出价——11.5万英镑（不含佣金），约合17万美元。而投资者们可不认为在购买沃霍尔(Warhol)或巴斯奎特(Basquiat)的作品25年之后会损失约40%。如果一幅早期绘画大师的作品被搁置在交易商的画廊里，想转卖它就更加困难。
— James Ball (@jamesrbuk) January 16, 2014
Other documents also revealed that the NSA can "easily" crack cellphone encryption, allowing the agency to more easily decode and access the content of intercepted calls and text messages.
10. NSA intercepts all phone calls in two countries
The NSA intercepts and stores all phone calls made in the Bahamas and Afghanistan through a program called MYSTIC, which has its own snazzy logo.
Harry Potter fans, it's time for another movie. A prequel to the Harry Potter films, Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them follows the adventures of Newt Scamander in an ancient New York. It is based on the Hogwarts textbook in Harry Potter by the same name.